The remote server would access the request, then authenticate through something like a username and password. The tunnel would be established and used to transfer data between the client and server.

If you want to emulate a point to point link, the data must be wrapped with a header – this is normally called encapsulation. This header should provide essential routing information which enables the data to traverse the public network and reach it\’s intended endpoint. In order to keep the link private on this open network all the data would normally be encrypted. Without this route information the data would never reach it\’s intended destination. The encryption ensures that all data is kept confidential. Packets that are intercepted on the shared or public network are indecipherable without the encryption keys. The link in which the private data is encapsulated and encrypted is known as a VPN connection.

One of the most important uses of remote access VPN connections is that it allows workers to connect back to their office or home by using the shared infrastructure of a public network such as the internet. At the users point, the VPN establishes an invisible connection between the client and the organisation’s servers. There is normally no need to specify and aspects of the shared network as long as it is capable of transporting traffic, the VPN tunnel controls all other aspects.   This does mean it’s very difficult to block these VPN connections as the BBC is discovering.

These connections are also known as router to router connections which are established between two fixed points. They are normally setup between distinct offices or based again using the public network of the internet. The link will operate in a similar way to a dedicated wide area network link, however at a fraction of the costs of a dedicated line. Many companies use these increasingly in order to establish fixed connections without the expense of WAN connections. It should be noted that these VPN connections operate over the data link layer of the OSI model.

One of the problems many network administrators find is that users on networks can set up their own VPN connections.  These can be very difficult to detect and allow a direct tunnels into a corporate network especially as they are often used for trivial issues such as obtaining an IP address for Netflix.  Needless to say having users stream encrypted videos streams to their desktops is not good for network performance or security.

Remember a site to site connection will establish a link between two distinct private networks. The VPN server will ensure that a reliable route is always available between the two VPN endpoints. One of the routers will take the role of the VPN client, by requesting the connection. The second server will authenticate and then reciprocate the request in order for the tunnel to be authenticated at each end. In these site to site connections, the packets which are sent across the routers will typically not be created on the routers but clients connected to these respective devices.


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