Securing the Web – Root Zone Key

Some interesting news, from a few years back – where a new root zone key was published.  It was supposed to make the web a much more secure place, however there seems little evidence that this has succeeded, here’s a summary of the news release which was from 2012 I think.

RIPE NCC, an internet infrastructure company celebrates its publication of a root zone key that they claim will bring about a more secure web.
The organization said that this new key will enable the deployment of Domain Name Server Security Extensions (DNSSEC). This guarantees that when users type in a certain domain server name, they will be directed to the authentic site.

Daniel Karrenberg, the Chief Scientist of RIPE, stated that services that are secured by a public key, cannot be tampered with by criminals. He further stated that trust and identity are key for the internet and the Domain Name System was not credible to serve those needs.

It’s particularly relevant as nowadays many of use are needing to take security into our own hands, mainly due to the overall insecurity of the internet and HTTP specifically.  The long list of countries who have been using DNS to enforce internet and content filters has added a further complication.  These complications are all over and being further enforced by geo – restrictions designed to enforce copyright or maximizing profits.   Which means many of us spend lots of our time searching for ways to bypass these blocks by using proxies or US residential IPs which are extremely difficult to find.

NS is a fundamental support system to the internet but has never had a security system that goes along with it. This in turn has led to many attacks in the past such as DNS cache poisoning. These type of attacks cause users to get malware or other viruses or they are directed to fraudulent websites where they are asked to input personal information.
DNSSEC uses digital signatures so that the DNS data that is received cannot be tampered with and is invisible to end-users. The digital signature feature does not slow down the speed at which the website loads.

All 13 of the worlds root names have switched to a signed root to enhance their security and prepare to meet global security needs. This enhancement also keeps them in the league of all other root names.   So there may be some hope that in the future the internet becomes less segmented again as per the original concept.  After all spending time searching for ways to bypass blocks and IP address just so I can watch UK TV in Germany seems a huge waste of time and resources.

The .uk and .org domains already use DNSSEC but Karrenberg expects the new security feature to be adopted by more top level domains (TLDs) and service providers in the upcoming months. He added that for this adoption to be successful it needs to be taken on at every level down the ISPs.
RIPE says that some users will have to upgrade their router hardware to benefit from the DNSSEC because some routers are not fit for the bigger package sizes of DNSSEC.
Organizational apathy has caused a worry in security experts because they think that regardless of the clear benefits some organizations will refuse to adopt the new enhancement to avoid change.

In the end, the benefits are clear but the adoptions process by all will be over years. Security experts predict that because of the security enhancement the add-on brings with it, eventually all root servers will succumb to the enhancement.

IPV6 and the Dual Stacked Internet

In the near future the Internet will become fragmented. The moment IPv4 addresses run out—which is likely to occur in the first quarter of 2011—there will be Internet users who can only surf over IPv6, and there will eventually be websites that can only be reached over IPv6.

Going forward, if you want to participate in the full breadth of the Internet then the solution is to surf dual-stacked—meaning your operating systems and browsers need to be configured for both IPv4 and IPv6. One of the best places to see them are on intermediary servers like proxies, ideally suited because they’re often dual homed.  There are some very sophisticated proxies which have both IP addresses and even some private proxies for Instagram which switch between both.  Below I outline how dual-stacking works from a technical perspective.

How dual-stacking is supposed to work
Let’s assume you have IPv6 access to the Internet. You probably still have your IPv4 Internet connection, but in addition to this, you now also have IPv6 access to the Internet. Either you have an IPv6-ready ISP (or you even decided to switch in order to get native IPv6 access) or you may have created an IPv6 tunnel using one of the public tunnel brokers or some other tunnel mechanism to cross your ISPs IPv4 backbone.
So far so good. But how do you know which websites are IPv6-enabled, and how do you get there?

First, you should not need to worry about this. This is the website administrator’s job. If a dual-stacked website is offered, there should be two entries in DNS for the hostname. So for instance, my website http://h2o-networks.uk.net/ is dual-stacked (the provider Cyberlink has offered my website dual-stacked for nearly 10 years). There is an A-record entry for the host containing the IPv4 address of my website and an AAAA-record entry containing the IPv6 address of my website.
Let’s say you have a dual-stacked client. As soon as the IPv6 stack on an interface is enabled and you enter a hostname in your browser, there are two DNS queries going out for the hostname. A query for an A-record and a query for a AAAA record.

In the screenshot above DNS has returned two addresses. In packet 100 (the second packet) you see DNS returning an IPv4 address and in packet 102 you see an IPv6 address for the same hostname. In this case the operating system should treat IPv6 preferentially and connect to the IPv6 address of the host. This is what you see in this screenshot. In packet 103 to 105 there is a TCP handshake over IPv6, which builds the connection to the website. In packet 106 you see the first GET request (HTTP) and the reply to it in packet 107. Now all further communication with this website will run over IPv6.

You may open another browser window and enter another hostname. The same DNS queries will go out just like in the above example. But maybe you enter the hostname of a website that is not available over IPv6. In this case, DNS only returns an IPv4 address and you will connect to this website over IPv4.

In theory, theory and practice are the same, but in practice they are not, so let’s look at some troubleshooting options in case the above example does not work as expected.

Troubleshooting dual-stacked Internet connectivity
In some cases you may find that your client does not prefer IPv6 over IPv4. This can come from the operating system or the browser. Different browsers may have different preferences, configurations and options. Some browsers, such as older versions of Opera and browsers on Mac OS X prefer 6to4 connections over IPv4, which also creates issues in accessing dual-stack websites.
Firefox has “hidden” configuration options which you can access by entering “about:config” in the URL entry field. When you do this you get the following warning screen:
warning message
warning message
So if you heed the warning you can configure many different options. Among these are options to configure IPv6 connectivity preferences such as the following two options:

network.dns.disableIPv6 = false (default)
network.dns.IPv4OnlyDomains (string, by default empty list)

With these default settings Firefox will use IPv6 if possible. If you have websites where you want to choose IPv4 over IPv6, you can enter them in the ‘IPv4 Only’ domain list.
When would you use the network.dns.disableIPv6 parameter? If your client is dual-stacked, it will always send out two DNS queries. But it may be that you are currently in a network with poor IPv6 connectivity. Just because you get an IPv6 address for my website, your browser will still try to connect over IPv6 even though your current connection is a bad one. In the case of Firefox you can use the config option ‘network.dns.disableIPv6 = true’ as long as you have poor IPv6 connectivity.

The best tool you can use to troubleshoot this type of problem is Wireshark (used in the screenshot above). Wireshark shows you every packet going out and coming into your interface. You can see what queries go out, what DNS answers, and what protocol is eventually used for the connection.

For Firefox there is an add-on tool available called ShowIP. If you install ShowIP, your current IP address is displayed in the status bar. Additionally, some dual-stack or IPv6-only websites have registered for the WWW IPv6 Ready logo and typically display the logo on their website. The list of registered websites can be found at the IPv6 Forum.
In summary, dual stack networks are rapidly becoming the defacto standard for integrating existing networks with IPv6. Solutions like BlueCat Networks’ Proteus provide parallel management for IPv4 networks which allows simultaneous management of dual stack devices that support both IPv4 and IPv6; this includes mapping IPv4 devices to their IPv6 address(es) and vice versa.

Further Reading – Where Can I Buy Proxies for Instagram

The Many Uses of Online Proxies

Nowadays much of our lives has moved online, and it’s hardly surprising to realise that we all have a digital footprint.  Everywhere we visit online, every file we download and each email we send is all attached to that footprint.  The stuff we watch on TV where the FBI track down our every move from our online activities is really not very far from the mark.  Obviously not everyone is completely happy with this, especially if you live in a country where the State has a less than impressive record with this sort of information.  There are tools we can all use though relatively easily to keep some semblance of privacy while we’re online including something called a proxy server.

Lots of us most probably have used a proxy server in all sorts of settings. Assuming that you employ the web at work or university, there’s a good chance that you connect to it through a proxy server. They are actually typically deployed to regulate access inwards and outwards to a company network from the world wide web. The idea is that as opposed to examining a large number of individual connections, the proxy can funnel traffic via a single point that makes it easier to monitor and check for things like viruses.

To enforce making use of the proxy server, most network administrators will enforce their usage by a range of strategies. From the client computer the use of the proxy will be made mandatory by hard coding the settings into the browser. So for instance, Internet Explorer would certainly be set up and the settings pre-configured by using some thing like the Internet Explorer Application kit. The settings can also be installed by utilizing group policy settings deployed to the client from the Active directory.

Additionally, the system administrator may additionally release settings on the external firewall to control access through the network perimeter. This would most likely be attained by specifying the IP address of the proxy and making sure that all other addresses are prevented from leaving the network. If there are numerous proxies or they are constructed in an array then multiple addresses would be configured. This would stop anybody at all from overriding client side settings or installing an additional browser and attempting to access the internet directly. If the address isn’t specified then the access would be blocked.

Proxies online are typically used in a marginally different context although the functionality is somewhat the same. They are mostly used to provide a level of privacy and conceal your internet address from web servers. The idea is that rather than seeing the IP address of your client, then the web server (and your ISP) will only view the IP address of the proxy. This would also allow you to bypass some of the various geo-blocks which exist on the web. Essentially if you route your connection by means of a proxy based in the right nation then you can bypass the block. Millions of people use these to watch things like the BBC from anyplace, though it can be challenging to find a UK proxy quick enough to stream video at least without paying for one.  Which is why there are lots of commercial options which people use to do things like watch UK TV online in Portugal or anywhere on the planet.

This has become much more challenging over the last handful of years though, as the internet sites have begun to detect the use of proxies and are blocking them automatically. Nowadays you normally need a VPN so as to watch video from one of the main media sites, due to the fact that proxies won’t work any longer.

Presently there are various other common uses of proxies online and that’s usually to make money. Countless individuals and companies, use proxies so as to create more electronic identities. This means instead of being restricted to one connection, then you can efficiently utilize hundreds at the same time. This is specifically useful for conducting online research, posting adverts, online marketing and even using e-commerce sites to buy stock to re-sell. A common use is to use automated software to buy things like sneakers or tickets to popular concerts, normally you’ll only be allowed to try and buy once but using proxies you can purchase many.  However ordinary proxy servers won’t work for these and you’ll need a lot of them.  If you’re looking in this area it’s best to look at the best rotating proxies you can find, which are fast, dedicated servers with residential IP addresses.

This is why people utilize computer software to automate these techniques and purchase the best rotating proxies so as to facilitate these purchases. There are lots of folks making thousands from simple software programs, a few rotating proxy networks and an ordinary home computer acquiring and selling limited availability items such as these.

Selecting a Business ISP Connection

You might think that choosing an internet connection plan was fairly straight forward after you’ve chosen a provider. After all most of them only have two or three options for home users which are normally listed in price order and supply different speeds and allowances. However many people are not aware that most ISP companies have two distinct categories one for residential users and the other for businesses. Now you might then think that if you don’t have a registered business that this doesn’t apply to you but that’s not so. Most ISPs are more than happy to let ordinary people register and use their business plans instead of the residential ones.


Many ISPs provide business internet plans that cost a little bit extra, but furthermore offer excellent features such as absolutely no throttling, no data caps, and even higher speeds. And the probabilities are that you can easily receive business internet in your house, regardless if you really have a business or otherwise. So why should you choose a business plan, is anything worth the increased expense that these plans come with?

What is “Business” Internet and Just How is It Different than an ordinary “Home” internet plan?

There are a number of important factors which set business internet plans apart from home internet, and supposing that you depend heavily on the internet in your everyday life, you may like to think about making the shift. Just like with just about anything, there certainly are benefits and drawbacks. Let’s begin along with the good stuff.

A few ISPs make available increased internet speeds (most notably upload speeds) for companies than they provide for domestic accounts. And that’s just the beginning.

It’s 2018, and even at this point the majority of ISPs are operating metered networks for home service, signifying you get a certain volume of data you are able to utilize monthly. Supposing that you go over that data cap, you get billed an overage. In the case of my service provider, if you go over your data bundle three times, they systematically bump you up to the next bundle, costing you more money. For various other ISPs, they might simply bill you additional monthly for what you use. And nevertheless others commence throttling your speed when you reach your data cap.

Nevertheless considering that businesses use more data (and also fluctuating amounts) on a month-to-month schedule, running a capped network does not make a great deal of sense. Most business internet schemes have zero data cap.   If you’re sick of having to watch every gigabyte you download, plan your download days around your billing cycle, or anything else involved in avoiding data overages, a business plan may be for you.

Unlimited usage is probably the most significant reason to consider a business plan over a home package, so if your home internet is already unlimited, a business plan may not be as enticing to you.  However you should be careful there are certain instances where a business connection can be unsuitable.  One of the primary issues is the classification of the IP address, which may different depending on the plans.  It’s possible that a business connection will supply a ‘business classified’ IP address, which can cause an issue for normal users.  Indeed many people actively pay for these home addresses as you can see in the following post about residential proxies.

The problem is that many commercial sites in an attempt to block spammers and automated connections have restricted access to those who have residential IP addresses.  For example if you connect to Netflix using a commercial address then you won’t be able to stream anything,.

When it comes to obtaining tech assistance from your ISP (for basic network problems ), it can be hit or miss on a home data plan. You might be waiting for ages and still just wind up with a generic answer from a script-reading employee.

Support for company plans often tends to be much better. In my circumstances, the wait times are a fraction of exactly what I’ve experienced in the past, and it feels like I’m speaking with a genuine person who really knows what they’re talking about– not someone just reading off a prompt.

In a perfect world, this would definitely be a non-issue, due to the fact that you ‘d certainly never have to call tech support. But we really don’t live in that world, so if having the best support you can obtain from your ISP is crucial, a business plan is a pretty good solution.

Not only that, but the support in general is much better. For example, I fairly recently got an e-mail to let me know my ISP would be performing some system upgrades in my area, so I could experience occasional issues while the repairs are taking place. Now when my’ internet drops for a couple of minutes, I know what’s up. I certainly never got anything like that when I was a home internet customer.

Our perception, though, is that ISPs have become more accommodating to providing business class internet at residential locations over recent years. And why not? Besides, the work-from-home types stand for a pretty large workforce nowadays, so why not offer them your services?

You may also be able to circumvent some of these qualifications (if you run into them) by talking with your ISP’s local rep. Whenever you call the business, it typically goes to a general call center, where they have no idea everything about you (or even care). If you can hit up a local office and speak with the local business representative, then you may be able to swing a change to a business plan with less hassle. Once again, it all just depends upon your location and your ISP.

Nonetheless, it deserves looking into. Maybe even at the increased price, the pros of business class internet often outweigh the cons.

Further Reading: Residential Proxies

Explaining Residential and Commercial Addresses

Everyone of course has a physical footprint, an address, an educational history and places of employment. Each and everyday we create more and more information which establishes our own personal history. The same is true of our digital lives and actually this is expanding at a much more rapid rate for most of us. The core of our digital presence is arguably the IP address that is assigned to our devices. Although this can alter over time, mostly the address that is assigned to our home connection rarely changes.

It’s appealing to look at an IP address and presume that they’re all practically the same. The notation is standard across the board something like 192.168.1.23, every address will have the same numerical format. In case you’re an IT professional you will have the capacity to recognize further distinctions, i.e the fact that these addresses are split into various classes – A, B, C, D and E. To the normal user these are of limited use and indeed interest.

There is an awful lot more that an IP address can reveal about the person or device using it that may not be so obvious. For a start, your specific location – your IP address could be traced back very precisely to your geographical location. With access to the right resources it can be pinpointed to an exact location and device. This stuff is often a shock to people who remain at home browsing the web, believing they are fairly anonymous. When in reality your IP address offers the computerized equivalence of your mail address, it leads straight to your door.

Web sites utilize this information continuously, to tailor what you can see and what you can get access to. One of the most favored strategies is to provide different price lists depending on your location, a straightforward but effective profit maximising strategy for the company. For example a web service can most likely be sold at a much higher cost in wealthier areas than it can in poorer ones. The online games retailer will sell a digital copy of a game at a much higher price in Europe than it will in African or South America.

Does not actually seem fair does it? Most of us most likely expect that we’e all treated in the same way online irrespective of who or where we are. Regretfully this online commercial discrimination is quite common and despite the fact that there are techniques to bypass it like utilizing a VPN or even a residential proxy, most people do not have access to this technology.

Looking up your physical location really isn’t the only piece of data that can be determined from your IP address, there’s more. To online organisations and websites there’s another important piece of relevant information that is easily obtainable from every address and that’s a specified classification. This is actually a further category from the subnet addressing reported above, and that’s regardless of whether the address is from a commercial or domestic range.

Assuming that you connect to the world wide web from your home address through a standard ISP after that you’ll have a residential IP address. If you access the web from work or university you’ll have a commercial IP address. This is useful specifically for commercial and e-commerce sites as they can establish who is most likely to become a potential customer. Indeed many websites have taken to blocking connectivity to any IP address which is categorized as a commercial address. They’ve carried this out to some extent to stop various application and online marketing software being able to access the site or indeed people from other geographic locations using VPNs.

Many 1000s of individuals used to utilize VPNs to access the US version of Netflix which in turn is significantly superior to most other provincial variations. In order to prevent this behavior Netflix blocked access to all commercial IP addresses which included 99% of all the VPN addresses being used to access Netflix. Now you can only access Netflix through a home internet connection or a VPN with a residential IP. Most other large internet companies don’t go to this level, however it’s likely to become an increasing trend.

Further Reading: Residential IP Services

Bypassing Web Filters – Simple Method

There are numerous ways in which the internet is filtered, although none of them are completely reliable. In reality the only ‘prefect’ method to block access to specific sites that are available online is to block access to the internet completely. Fortunately with the possible exception of North Korea this method is rarely used and most companies and countries use some other method to control access to websites.

The Western Democracies mostly leave access to the world wide web unfettered, however even these countries will restrict certain criminal sites. Companies normally will block access to sites which could cause them legal or productivity issues. After all, why leave access open from the company network to somewhere like Facebook when it serves little business purpose. What is more your employees are likely to waste many hours on such sites when they really should be working.

However there are also restrictions and blocks placed by the websites themselves. These are for a variety of reasons but mostly due to copyright and profit maximisation ones, they are probably most commonly found in large media sites who want to block access to their content outside the domestic market so that they can resell elsewhere. Mostly these blocks are quite simple ones, where the IP address of the inbound connection is looked up in database then either allowed through or blocked depending on which country it’s originated from. This method is actually very easily to bypass as all you need to do is mask your real address and present one from the specified country.

The easiest method by far to do this is to route your connection through an intermediate server. Originally most people used a proxy server for this, simply because free ones were readily available all over the internet in different locations. Most sites now can detect and automatically block these servers though so using a proxy for bypassing blocks is fairly redundant now. The new method is pretty similar but involves a VPN connection instead of a simple proxy. The advantage is that the connection is encrypted and virtually impossible to detect easily, although the Chinese have made some progress in this.

Providing the VPN server is located in the correct location it should allow unrestricted access to whichever site is accessed. So for example if you were in Paris you’d need to find a VPN server in the UK to access the BBC iPlayer in France. This is because when you connected to the BBC website it would only see the IP address of the VPN server and presume you were in the United Kingdom. Although the VPN cannot be detected directly, the IP addresses are vulnerable to detection and indeed some are blocked.  The main method for detecting and blocking addresses of VPN servers is by monitoring concurrent connections.  An overloaded VPN server will have hundreds of connections originating from a single IP addresses, it can be presumed that this is a relay server of some sort and they will often be blocked.

Jim Reeves

Website

No Comments Networking, News

Packet Sniffing for Beginners

Sometimes there are errors and problems on a network that need in depth analysis. Troubleshooting some issues can be almost impossible without using a tool to investigate deeper such as a packet sniffer. Often you won’t be able to find that issue with a non-responsive share or the reason that your RAS server is so slow is because all your travelling sales people are using it to watch BBC TV abroad when they’re travelling!

If a certain error condition occurs only when the request is coming from an actual client, but not when using telnet, packet sniffing is in order.
Sometimes, using telnet may be complex, because the proxy and origin servers may require authentication credentials to be sent. In those
cases, it is more convenient to use a real Web client that can easily construct those headers. Also, if a problem exhibits itself with a certain client,
but not with others, it is worthwhile to find out exactly what is being sent by the client.

There are a number of packet sniffers. Depending on the operating
system, you may find some of these useful.
° wireshark
° ethereal
° etherfind
° tcpdump
° nettl

Many books and instructions will pick a specific packet sniffer to use so if you’re following a guide use this. One of the most popular is Wireshark which is a fully functional and free packet sniffer often used by professionals instead of more costly commercial options.
Many of the most comprehensive are actually distributed as part of Unix and Linux distributions and you’ll have to refer to the UNIX man pages for instructions for the others.
Example. Let’s say you want to snoop the traffic between the hosts fred’s PC (client) and socrates (server). You can use something like Wireshark to track the traffic between the two endpoints and analyse what’s happening between them.

Of course, this only is useful if you can initially identify which sources to monitor. If you suspect that Fred is using the company proxy for Netflix then you can prove the point easily using a packet sniffer. If you’re not sure then you may have to look first to the network hardware for clues, checking switches and hubs for span ports and plugging into them is a useful tactic. These ports typically mirror all the traffic being carried over the active ports meaning you can use the span port to track all the data on that device.

The ability to specify a port is essential and all decent packet sniffers will allow this. Also you should be able to use switch options to control how the traffic should be dumped. That is to specify exactly what format the traffic should be returned in, this is useful as it helps in the analysis stage. Any packet sniffer which doesn’t do this will make the next stages much harder as the amount of data produced will often be very large.

Implementing your Internet Security Policy

One of the problems with IT department is that they can often be a little bit detached from the rest of an organisation. Many are even physically separated, perhaps stuck in a separate building or floor which only helps increase the isolation. In many ways it’s not a problem after all, it’s a department which will probably need more space and room for storage of parts, replacements etc. Commonly the IT department will have easy access to server rooms so that they can maintain and support when those remote connections drop.

However one of the issues is that people who work in IT often see the rest of the company through their IT usage and not through their real function. This can be a problem with how people use technology and how it is managed throughout the company.

The classic example is that of internet usage, which over the last decade or so has become one of the main issues to manage in any IT department. First of all there are the technical complexities of allowing company clients to access outside resources. Then there are the potential security risks of viruses, hacking attempts, inappropriate browsing, email security, spam and so on. Access to the internet is now fairly commonplace but it almost always puts a huge strain on both technical and human resources to support.

For example many users will use the internet just as they do at home? Downloading BBC videos like this, visiting shopping sites, hobbies, research and all sorts of things which can impact the local network. It doesn’t take many users streaming video to their PCs to have a huge slowdown on many normal company networks which are rarely configured to cope with this sort of traffic. Yet how do you stop them? Many IT departments I have seen over the years simply block access, a few rules in the firewall will stop all access to a particular site. However this is obviously not the way to do this, a technical solution should not be implemented on it’s own.

A company should have an Internet Usage Policy to cover situations like this. Without stating clearly what employees can or can’t do online leaves the company and Human Resource departments on very thin ice. That user who spends all day streaming from Netflix or visiting porn sites is clearly not doing their job but it’s difficult to discipline without clear guidelines in such a policy or in their terms of employment. Having a proper internet policy is much simpler as it can be adapted quickly, can be referenced from other policies and things like employee guidelines. Also the policy can be directly linked to technical solutions like a proper access control list.

If guidelines are in place, you mostly won’t have to spend time chasing and blocking video and media sites individually like Netflix or the BBC iPlayer. If employees know that they are not able to use these sites and the reasons behind them generally the problem is resolved first. There may be issues with more technical users who attempt to circumvent or hide their activities perhaps using an online IP changer but there people are easier to deal with if they are directly contravening company policies.

No Comments Networking, News, Protocols

Network Layer Switches

Network switches play a critical role in the performance of local area networks. They may be used in private networks like the intranet and extranet, segmenting the networks into more manageable sections. The resulting networks are known as HFC, please see the glossary for definitions. Setting up a sizable computer network can be an intimidating undertaking and one needs an in-depth understanding of the role of every networking device to construct an efficient network. Thus, it’s accountable for setting up the essential network for transferring data from 1 user to other. In truth, it is the largest SDH-based transport network on earth. It establishes a relation to the device by choosing the essential service or application.

Packet routing is extremely essential task in order to prevent congestion. When a data packet would like to reach a specific destination, it must traverse through these networks. The file transfer protocol supplies a way to move data efficiently from 1 machine to another. Routing protocols transmit information concerning the network. Most routing protocols do not consist of layer two information that’s necessary to set up a VCC connection. It’s an unreliable, connectionless protocol for applications which do not want TCP’s sequencing on flow control and want to provide their own. In large, complex networks servers need access to this sort of throughput – imagine the strain on something like Netflix IP servers broadcasting video to millions.

Every computer online or a local network becomes assigned an exceptional address commonly called Internet Protocol address or simply the IP address. It is not just a vast array of computers, connected to each other. You may also browse the internet for articles, discussions and suggestions. Optical communication links and networks are crucial for the online backbone along with for interconnects utilised in data centres and high-performance computing systems.

While doing this, it must manage problems like network congestion, switching issues, etc.. It can help you comprehend the working of a network in an easy and quick method. Many times, once an application would like to communicate with a different application, then there must be communication between these associated processes. Working of the web is based on a collection of protocols. To have the ability to find that massive network to work and get our LANs to act jointly there has to be a routing protocol that enables it. It uses TCP at the transport layer again to find out the reliability.

If you have a relatively new mobile handset, then it’s most inclined to be equipped with an integrated web browser. It selects device and execute a service discovery to look for available services or applications. Bluetooth devices operate in a variety of about ten meters. It functions as an intermediary between wireless and wired devices which are part of a network. Aside from the computers themselves, there are numerous intermediary devices which make data transfer possible. It can also allow a network to detect, reroute or simply block specific types of transport presumably it is how the BBC has blocked VPNs like this story details.

Window flow control mechanisms weren’t modeled, so as to extend the reach of the study to congestion collapse regions. After you prepare the export feature, NetFlow information is exported whenever a flow expires. The principal use of the router is to ascertain the very best network path in a complicated network. The third main purpose of LAN switches is Layer two loop avoidance. Besides this, the gateway functionality has to be enabled. Each P-NET module also has to have a service channel that may identify unknown participants.

Computer Security: Phishing

Out of all the weapons available to a cyber criminal, phishing is probably one of the most widely used. It is generally described as a random, un-targeted attack with the intention of tricking someone into revealing confidential information by replying to an email, clicking a link or filling in a bogus webpage. Most of the popular phishing attacks rely on an element of social engineering. That is deceiving people into gaining access rather than directly hacking into a target system.

Usually the main delivery mechanism is via email and using modern mailing systems they can target millions of email addresses at one time. There are many variations of the phishing attacks ranging from installing keyloggers, duplicate websites or similar. The intent is always to steal personal information such as username, passwords and account numbers.

It is fairly common for these phishing emails to include attachments or links that can install various types of malware onto the victims computer in order to steal their information too.

Quick Summary of Phishing Attacks

There are as explained lots of different types of Phishing attacks and their popularity changes quite regularly.

Email Phishing – is probably the most well known and centers around mass distributions of emails, they are very random and usually rely on volume to succeed.

Spear Phishing – is a more targeted term for phishing which follows the basic premises. However they are usually more sophisticated and tailored towards a certain type of user or organisation.

Man in the Middle (MiTM) attacks involve the attacker positioning themselves between a legitimate website or company and the end user, the goal is to record any information sent. It\’s normally one of the most difficult to operate but also to detect as the transactions are normally legitimate but simply intercepted.

There are many other methods available to capture information with things like keyloggers and screen capture programs popular too, the ideas are always to simply gain passwords or other personal information.

Some other variants include pharming which is even less targeted than phishing just installing malicious code onto servers to redirects any user to fake websites. There are various methods of doing this including several involving DNS like modifying a users host file to redirect them without their knowledge. A particularly sinister version of pharming is known as DNS (Domain Name System) poisoning where users are directed to fraudulent websites without the need for corruption of the personal host file.  Others use legitimate or at least semi-legitimate services to trick people to using them.  One of the more popular methods was to put free proxy servers out on the internet for people to bypass region blocks, these were then used to steal peoples credentials as they were using them.   This explains the method of region lock bypass using a proxy to watch the BBC although the example used in the post was a commercial service.

Malware Phishing – Is the process of download malware on a users’ device either through an attachment in an email, a downloadable web file or exploiting software vulnerabilities.

Further Reading – Security Information and UK VPN trial